Site 18HA34 represents a prehistoric base camp with evidence of Late Archaic and Late Woodland period occupations.  A scatter of late eighteenth through early twentieth century artifacts has also been identified.  The site occupies a high terrace overlooking the Gunpowder River.

Archaeological Investigations

Site 18HA34 was originally recorded by Tyler Bastian in 1970 based on information from William Marye.  R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc., conducted Phase I, II and III investigations between 2005 and 2010.

Phase I:  A series of 19 shovel test pits were excavated over a 0.53 acre area, producing 62 prehistoric artifacts, including 46 quartz flakes, six quartzite flakes, one jasper and one sandstone flake, one sandstone groundstone pestle, and six quartzite fire-cracked rocks.

Phase II:  Testing included an additional 108 shovel tests at 5 m intervals and 20 one by one meter test units. 1,141 prehistoric artifacts were recovered during the Phase II effort, including 11 bifaces, 1,017 flakes, three flake tools, 106 fragments of fire-cracked rock, and four ceramic sherds.  Diagnostics included one tentatively identified pentagonal or Poplar Island preform fragment, one quartz poplar Island point, one possible Savannah River point, one possible Susquehanna broadspear, and four Townsend sherds.  Forty-eight historic artifacts were recovered from the plowzone. Most dating to the late eighteenth through early twentieth century.

Phase III:  The Data Recovery effort at 18HA34 mitigated a portion of the site.  Phase III archaeology included the excavation of four 3x3 meter excavation blocks.  A total of 36 square meters were excavated.  1,437 prehistoric artifacts were recovered, and three cultural components were identified (Late Archaic, Early to Middle Woodland, and Late Woodland).  Two radiocarbon dates from the Phase III work included a calibrated radiocarbon date range (2-Sigma) of AD 1420 to 1640 (Beta-216026), and another calibrated date range (2-Sigma) of AD 1440 to 1640 (Beta-216025).  Horizontal and vertical overlapping of these prehistoric occupation layers complicated research.

Archeobotanical Studies

Phase III Data Recovery efforts at Site 18HA34 Site included the processing and analysis of four flotation samples (measuring a minimum of two liters each).  A total of 71 fragments of carbonized wood were recovered.  Of these, a sub-sample consisting of a maximum of 20 fragments per sample was randomly selected for identification. Thirty-one fragments of white oak wood charcoal (from Sample 5003 and Lot 142) were documented.   Non-carbonized seeds (modern in origin) occurred in three of the four samples analyzed.   Each sample also  included small quantities of spherical silicaceous material, which is formed when plant parts high in silica (such as grass leaves and stems) are burned and the silica melts and forms droplets which persist in the archaeological record.


Hornum, Michael B., Kathryn G. Dixon, and Daniel Grose
2005 Phase I Archaeological Survey and Phase II Archaeological Evaluations at Sites 18HA34, and 18HA284 for the Proposed Old Trails Residential Development, Harford County, Maryland.  R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc.  MHT # 103.
Hornum, Michael B.,  Joshua S. Roth, Nathan Workman
2010 Phase III Archaeological Data Recovery at Site 18HA34 for the Proposed Old Trails Residential Development, Harford County, Maryland.  R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates, Inc., for Old Trail Partnership, LLC.  MHT # pending.
McKnight, Justine
2007 Flotation-recovered Plant Remains from Site 18HA34, Old Trails Data Recovery Project, Harford County, Maryland.  Report submitted to R. Christopher Goodwin and Associates, Inc.

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