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Rosary - The Frasers of the Outlander series are Catholics, and the books make reference to Jamie Fraser having a rosary that he carries until he gives it to a special person in his life. While there are no complete rosaries in the JPPM archaeological collections, there are glass beads and a cross that, when put together as shown here, can illustrate a type of rosary that an 18th-century Scot might have carried in his sporran. This is an interpretation of a single-decade rosary, also known as a “tenner,” which usually consists of a cross, ten beads, and a loop at the end. During times of persecution, a tenner was more easily hidden than a standard length rosary, but the full fifty-prayer cycle could be completed by transferring the loop from one finger to the next. Image of glass beads and silver reliquary: Beads, Date: ca. 1689-1711, Site Name: King’s Reach, Site Number:18CV83 - The yellow beads in this interpretation of a single decade rosary represent the ten beads that are typical of a “tenner,” and the person saying the rosary would move the beads along in their fingers while praying Hail Marys and contemplating the Mysteries of the rosary. The large clear beads probably would not have been present on an 18th-century single decade rosary, but they are included here to mimic the “first bead” (representing an Our Father prayer) above the cross and the beads that separate decades on a standard rosary. When beads are found individually, as all of the beads shown here were, there is no way to know if they could have been part of a rosary as opposed to jewelry. What is clear is that many matching beads were lost at the King’s Reach site where these were recovered, so it is likely that a whole string was lost there, only to be recovered by archaeologists nearly 300 years later.; Silver Reliquary Cross, Date: ca. 1680-1750, Site Name: St. Inigoes Manor House, Site Number: 18ST329/28 - This silver cross-shaped pendant is a reliquary, which means that it is designed to hold a sacred relic, such as a piece of the true cross, or a bone associated with a saint. The pendant has not been opened to see if it still holds a relic, but it has been x-rayed, and the x-rays show only the internal structure of the piece; there is no evidence of an object surviving within it. Reliquaries were associated with miraculous powers in colonial Maryland.  For example, the 1642 annual letter from Maryland Jesuits to the Vatican tells the story of an encounter between the Jesuit missionary Father Andrew White and an Indian named Anacostian, who had been speared in an ambush. Father White administered aid by applying, “to the wound on each side the sacred relic of the Most Holy Cross, which he carried in a case around his neck.” The treatment reportedly healed the man’s wounds by the next day, saving his life, and motivating him to convert.  Reliquaries therefore represented very powerful objects to Maryland’s Catholic residents. This particular reliquary was recovered at a tobacco plantation founded by Jesuits in St. Inigoes, Maryland in 1637. Jesuits were among the first English colonists in Maryland, and the proprietors of the colony, the Calvert family, were Catholics. This led to early conflicts among settlers, because most of the English colonists were Protestants who often resented the Catholicism of the Calverts and their allies. In 1689, Protestants overthrew the Calvert proprietary government and outlawed Catholic practices. Jesuits retreated to their private plantations such as St. Inigoes after the upheaval. Not surprisingly, the archaeological record shows an increase in the number of religious artifacts at the site after the Protestant rebellion. This reliquary was lost in an area occupied by Jesuits from ca. 1680-1750, when the plantation that had been founded to grow tobacco took on a new role as a private center of Catholic activity within a colony that was hostile to the “Papist” religion. Image of an x-ray of the silver cross pendant: X-rays of the silver cross pendant do not show any evidence of a bone fragment stored inside. Instead, the whitest areas of the image show up where the x-ray had to pass through the most silver metal, and this revealed the internal structure of the pendant. The front cover is held in place by a soldered metal plate at the top, and a pin that slides through a socket at the bottom. Courtesy of the Naval Air Station Patuxent River Webster Field Annex, Naval District Washington.